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Did you know floods are one of the most common types of natural disasters? Or in 2015, floods caused more deaths and destruction of property than any other natural disaster? Floods affect us all – no neighborhood, community, state, or region is immune to their threat. To help build flood resilience, the DHS Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) developed its Flood Apex program, which is aimed to create a decision support system-of-systems for community risk assessment and resilience planning. The Flood Apex will culminate in the development of the National Flood Decision Support Toolbox, which will help users in making crucial decisions before, during, and after events.
S&T wants your insights on how to best enhance community protection, flood impact mitigation, flood response, and community recovery. Getting to the bottom of the issues starts with you. By participating, you're helping ensure that the National Flood Decision Support Toolbox is the best it can be.
If you've lived through a flood, what can you share with others to help them become more resilient?
What do you think needs to be addressed in the areas of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery? How? By whom?
Questions? Contact us at email!
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My husband and I are shrimpers from Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, where we have lived for over 40 years. It is the last town on the east bank of the Mississippi River before it hits the Gulf of Mexico. I remember watching the weather news about the approaching storm. I remember packing all the pictures and placing them in garbage bags securing them on top of my dresser and chest of drawers. Also, the fishermen were ...more »
My husband and I are shrimpers from Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, where we have lived for over 40 years. It is the last town on the east bank of the Mississippi River before it hits the Gulf of Mexico.
I remember watching the weather news about the approaching storm. I remember packing all the pictures and placing them in garbage bags securing them on top of my dresser and chest of drawers. Also, the fishermen were busy moving the boats around try to get them to safe harbor as best they can. So I decided to take a ride on my motorcycle to check out the action. I rode up and down the road as if in a panic because I feared the worst, only to have the bike lean over and fall on my leg breaking a bone and tearing up my knee. Not good.
My husband brought me to the bone and joint clinic the next day for an ex ray..They could not cast the break because of the swelling. We went back home to wait for the storm.
The next day the news is talking about a possible category five which may impact the city of New Orleans. We make plans to head out after the boats have been moved..ha ha ..to what we thought would be a safe place.
I get on the phone and call my daughter to find out where she is going..She tells me she is staying on a jack up boat in the bayou..I said what? We are going to stay on a boat in this storm? She says yes..we will be fine…Oh Lord. So early in the morning we bring our dog way…50 miles up the road where we figured she would be safe…wrong again.
We are getting last minute phone calls…saying our good bye’s..I remember saying “Run Forrest Run”!
We spent a good night when the storm came thru…Not a vibration at all. I thought it passed us by. The next morning we all got up to check everything out. Beautiful sky, nice as could be …until the captains on the jack up boat started blowing the horns and screaming and hollering.. Well, I am thinking what the hell…I am getting off.. When they grabbed me and said…THE WATER IS COMING..PREPARE TO JACK UP! What?
The captains were true heroes. They jumped from one boat to the other to get all of them jacked up …several boats were tied up by our boat and they saved them all…and all loaded with people. I stood in awe as I watched the water coming up like a scene from the bible. I watched the deer’s scrambling to get to high ground. I watched all the trucks and then houses go under water. We all stood and watched, not too much was spoken.
We prepared a Mickey Mouse pancake breakfast for the kids..The men, I think knew the trouble we were in but said nothing. We all took our turn on trying to get TV service to no avail. The jack up boat had a satellite phone on board which the captain used to notify the coast guard of our condition.. We were all good no emergency on board.
That night I remember wrapping my leg in Scott towels and then wrapping duct tape around the break of the leg. I did that every couple of nights I learned what skid tracks are (don’t ask)..the kids and I found a DVD The Never Ending Story ..Oh Lord ..We watched it over and over.
The next day the guys got busy on trying to get the flooded 4 wheeler to start. The trucks were all under water and we were trying to plan some type of escape. The girls learned to wash clothes in a mop bucket and hang them out over hydraulic lines to dry. A song came to mine..Did Momma say there’re would be days like this? Anyway..we were truly fine and healthy ..just very much stuck in the toxic soup. This is a saying we learned about later. After a couple of days the guys finally got the four wheeler running, only, to have it seized by the St. Bernard Sheriff’s office. I stayed angry about that for a long time.
Later on, way, way later ..we found out that these stores located in a disaster area, cannot legally sell any of the products that may or may not have been flooded…So we were right in getting the medicine. The guys worked on getting the front end loader running and began transporting people via the bucket..from the boat to the high ground. Sharing trucks that were running, trying to find gas, we eventually were able to leave. We headed to Lafayette, God bless my daughter for taking us in. We stayed on that Jack Up boat for 9 days. It saved our lives. I am very grateful to the crew of EBI .
We became known as ‘The refugees’ upon our arrival. We had to stand in line for ‘free benefits’..We did not want to, but we could not go home. My house was gone, land under water..one of the local boys had to break the levee with his back hoe to allow the water to flow back out.
Eventually we had to buy a camper to get back home. Coming home was nasty. Hot, animals wondering all over the place cows and horses who survived the flood were now thirsty and starving. All the grass had died due to the saltwater flood and there was no fresh water for them to drink. We inherited a cat who kept us company during the night. I have never seen the nights so dark. We stayed without power for months. We waited for a FEMA trailer to arrive which was a wonderful thing. I do not care what anyone else thought about their FEMA trailer. I loved mine. It had an ice box and a Air Conditioner and a stove and a microwave. When you have nothing..it is a wonderful thing to have.
When the phone service was restored many sad days passed then. Fighting with the home owners insurance, people calling threatening me to turn me over to a collection agency because I have not paid my bills?..Good Lord..Finally I enjoyed getting the calls and laughing about it. (For example) Dish Network..”Mrs. Donna, we are coming to pick up our equipment…” “ha ha, good luck, I said, finding it. I can’t find my house, my freezer, My barn, My garage, My dog shed..Common over..I will help you look!’ Idiots! I said have you heard about Hurricane Katrina?
The military showed up and I remember having a conversation with a service guy. He tells me
Almost crying … Mrs Donna, I fly an airplane and we do bombing exercises. I, and crew of ten more planes would have to fly for a week dropping bombs constantly, and, we would not be able to do the damage that this storm has done. I have witnessed from the air the entire Gulf Coast has been whipped out. Puts the whole damn thing in respective doesn’t it?
And in closing…There are tons of more stories, like the conversations we had over cleaning up the mud and lots of crying over the devastation and nastiness of it all. Two hundred dead Satsuma and navel trees… But…. Mostly I remember the way neighbors helped each other with sharing the saved tractors to the kindness of bringing down a pack of bologna. How driving around pieces of houses on the road and searching for missing boats and etc.
The lesson I will like to share with anyone else that may have to go thru this. If the weather man says bad storm approaching, pack your dog and you pictures and get the hell out.
We moved into a non-flood plain area in 1988. Back yard is a bit of a bowl, with heavy downpours pooling near the back door. Early on, I'd be out there with a broom in the worst part of a thunderstorm, pushing water around the corner of the house. Later added gutters, to divert water from the roof. The came the French Drain, in an effort to stop the broom-work. After a few years, the access to the drain had grown ...more »
We moved into a non-flood plain area in 1988. Back yard is a bit of a bowl, with heavy downpours pooling near the back door. Early on, I'd be out there with a broom in the worst part of a thunderstorm, pushing water around the corner of the house. Later added gutters, to divert water from the roof. The came the French Drain, in an effort to stop the broom-work. After a few years, the access to the drain had grown over, so we put an electric sump pump in the low area, to move the rainwater. Later cleaned out the original, and added a second French Drain along the back fence, in hopes of catching some of the neighbor's rain before it came towards the house. Now have a work order in for a true storm drain, to be installed outside the back door. The official, catch-all term used by my insurance company is "Rising Waters", and homeowners policies don't cover same. Never give up. Never, Never, Never give up.
We always think of flood events on a macro level -- but effective mitigation can start AT HOME! In the 1990s, just 2-3 years after moving into our Illinois residence, came the historic rains and floods which made for the highest levels of water on the Mississippi in modern history. What it ALSO did was flood our basement -- complete with boxes we hadn't yet unpacked from our move! We discovered only AFTER this occurred ...more »
We always think of flood events on a macro level -- but effective mitigation can start AT HOME!
In the 1990s, just 2-3 years after moving into our Illinois residence, came the historic rains and floods which made for the highest levels of water on the Mississippi in modern history. What it ALSO did was flood our basement -- complete with boxes we hadn't yet unpacked from our move!
We discovered only AFTER this occurred -- a factor which is present in many many modern built homes. The homes in our development were built so fast, and never followed up on, that the soil had settled around the house and its foundation -- and made for water moving TOWARD the foundation instead of away from it! In this historic rain, we found water was filling the lightwells of our basement and then pouring in from there! It ruined much - and had us work long hours at restoring the partially finished basement ourselves.
What we didn't realize then, but do now (and recommend to all) is CHECK AROUND YOUR OWN HOME for such a condition! Should you have soil pitched toward your foundation, and maybe even have a trough or depression around the immediate area next to the foundation - FIX IT!
The fix can be by several means. One we used was to take clay soil (even taking out some regular soil) and placing it around the home while ALSO using it to fill the "depression trench" around the home caused by the settling. This soil was built up enough (and pitched outward), that between that layer and the layer of top soil we put over it (for plants and shrubs), the water would thereafter be going AWAY from the home and not TOWARD the home.
It really didn't take that much labor or time to do this (less than restoring our basement). But it has CONSISTENTLY prevented the same problem from every happening again!
So - ahead of any area flooding and rain caused damages to your community - HARDEN YOUR OWN HOME in this manner. You'll be very glad you did!
After years of working with our emergency management professionals to build mobile tools for responding to flood events; the implications of our neighbors' 1am call to proclaim "we are being flooded" seemed obvious... However, the full appreciation of a flood is achieved while listening to the sounds of air escaping from under your floors and then chasing earthworms from the soaked insulation between your studs after ...more »
After years of working with our emergency management professionals to build mobile tools for responding to flood events; the implications of our neighbors' 1am call to proclaim "we are being flooded" seemed obvious... However, the full appreciation of a flood is achieved while listening to the sounds of air escaping from under your floors and then chasing earthworms from the soaked insulation between your studs after the waters subside.
A mop and bucket from the Red Cross does little to help homeowners navigate the specific definitions used to categorize (and limit) covered expenses or comprehend the actual damage sustained by residents. Even when a resident can "live" in their home while spending tens of thousands to replace HVAC and electrical... a FEMA assessment of "minor damage" simply adds insult to a family who is recovering from damage to what they formally believed was the center of their existence.
Hopefully the new and improved spatial relational database structure built for CAUSEIV will assist future data collection efforts and facilitate the safety of residents and the responder community.
A few years ago, while I was out of town, DC experienced an atypical torrential rainfall. Upon my return, I was greeted with a basement that still had about six inches of standing water in several spots; there wasn't a dry section of the entire floor. In the end, the basement had to be completely remediated given the mold and water damage - an event that cost me just shy of $7,000 since I had no flood insurance. Needless ...more »
A few years ago, while I was out of town, DC experienced an atypical torrential rainfall. Upon my return, I was greeted with a basement that still had about six inches of standing water in several spots; there wasn't a dry section of the entire floor. In the end, the basement had to be completely remediated given the mold and water damage - an event that cost me just shy of $7,000 since I had no flood insurance.
Needless to say, I learned a lot:
1. That standard homeowners insurance doesn't cover flood damage
2. I'll never look at another basement the same again--I look for past damage in spots I never would have examined before
3. If I'm going to be out of town, I try to get someone to check in on my property every now and then to make sure nothing is going on
4. Check your drain pipes and make sure they're secure and positioned so they can't get nudged about and end up forcing water into places it shouldn't flow
5. Outside drain covers are essential!
I can remember when I was a young boy in Florida having to try and make it to school during the hurricane season and our car getting flooded on the way there due to high water levels on the roads.
Now because of that experience I currently drive a Jeep Wrangler and My wife drives a Suburban.
Resilient transportation is a key part of my readiness planning because of that childhood event.
I think there needs to be a water engineering management set of processes and procedures developed in order to mitigate these disasters and actually prevent damage. There seems to have been too little work done on building dams and other structures as preventative measures in order incur the least damages owing to flooding. I also feel you need a type of software-engineered simulation of flooding, whereby rivers, streams, ...more »
I think there needs to be a water engineering management set of processes and procedures developed in order to mitigate these disasters and actually prevent damage. There seems to have been too little work done on building dams and other structures as preventative measures in order incur the least damages owing to flooding. I also feel you need a type of software-engineered simulation of flooding, whereby rivers, streams, lakes, gulfs, etc, would be measured in real-time for their water levels and then have that reported back to a central station monitoring these things. Then you could evaluate how you need to build dams and blocking structures to prevent flooding. With an appropriate software simulation model, which would incorporate satellite weather data, you could do a better job and prevent much damage by flooding.
What capabilities are limiting in local government that prevents local government, government leaders, and other local leadership from taking action before an event to build resilience, or after a disaster from taking action to plan recovery integrating disaster resilience? Is it raw capacity -ie very limited government staff and roles? Lack of community planning experience? Lack of data or models? How important ...more »
What capabilities are limiting in local government that prevents local government, government leaders, and other local leadership from taking action before an event to build resilience, or after a disaster from taking action to plan recovery integrating disaster resilience? Is it raw capacity -ie very limited government staff and roles? Lack of community planning experience? Lack of data or models? How important are these things compared to public attitudes that drive local politics? Why are communities not able to fully implement changes even after a disaster when public demand is potentially high for long term improvements?
BACKGROUND CONSIDERATIONS: All hazards begin locally and end locally, but in the middle, (for every hazard or event) there are “EO Climate Change” considerations and Executive Branch level Planning Framework designating Official Government Agencies as well as key stakeholders that will work with LEPC designated personnel and their Emergency Operations Plans during these (e.g. Flood events). The net labor and resources ...more »
All hazards begin locally and end locally, but in the middle, (for every hazard or event) there are “EO Climate Change” considerations and Executive Branch level Planning Framework designating Official Government Agencies as well as key stakeholders that will work with LEPC designated personnel and their Emergency Operations Plans during these (e.g. Flood events). The net labor and resources required to manage the flood scenario will be divided between National, State and Local management teams, and each of these agencies will be focused on different aspect of the flood (e.g. submersion, displacement, contamination, toxins, poison, contagions, infrastructure, natural habitat, clean-up etc.) Therefore, each agency, team, and expert will have their own viewpoints, definitions, and set of problems, for what they consider to be, (directly or indirectly) a “contamination” issue. Flood related hazards have many general effects that that may be prevented, but also have unique geographic effects to account for during the flood as well. Truly, there are Pro’s and Con’s to flood scenarios, and some say that water and mineral redistribution rejuvenates soil. Each geographic area presents its own set of potential contaminants and it is the recommendation of the CDC that “health authorities should characterize potential health exposure risks posed by flood waters on a case-by-case basis.”
NOTE: Universal guidance is not possible because differences in soil, moisture and sun light of a region change the microbial sustainability parameters post flood. Additionally, regional variance of Impermeable Surfaces, number of available steeply sloped drainage areas, constrictions, obstruction (bridges and culverts), debris, local contamination vectors, soil saturation points, velocity of the flood, topography, ground cover, and the number and size of local basins changes the response and recovery recommendations.
Below, I will focus on the general (converse effects) that are closely related to the contamination aspect of floods you desire to cover.
=>INNATE WATER HAZARDS: All water (especially water that has not been purified) can pose a threat to humans, and it is well known that skin should not be submerged for periods of time greater than 13 hours of continuous exposure (as we discovered in WW-I & II with the onset of Trench Foot). Also obviously water can trap individuals resulting in exposure, hypothermia, drowning, and electric shock from submerged power lines.
Consumption is yet another concern, drinking water quality standards are here:
=>GENERAL CONTAMINATION- (chemicals, compounds, biologics & contagions, elements, hazardous substances, objects, poison, pollution, toxins, or oncogens) Pertaining to the local water supply, the locally designated “Freshwater Environmental Quality Parameters” are recorded and apply to rivers, lakes, and groundwater as well as man-made reservoirs including content of minerals, chemicals, biological, and microbiological inhabitants. Pollution implies contamination beyond an acceptable (level), and is an important clarification made here, because levels of metals and minerals are recorded and (New flood related deposits of minerals may initiate imbalances in nature and must be accounted for). Also, everything - everywhere already has some minor degree of contamination. During a flood, contaminant solubility is not necessarily important since the motion of the flood creates an admix despite chemical properties, but after a flood it may become relevant. I could generally state that during a flood everything that may become submerged could contaminate something else, or become contaminated itself, and any contaminant that is KNOWN to causes illness or spread or cause unwanted change in a human or livestock or our food/water sources or the natural ecosystems could be considered a high priority. Immediate flood risks generally include mud-slides, submersion scenarios, erosion with collapse, electricity, explosions, fires, hazardous fumes, and infection control therefore “Clean-up” crews and officials must clear sites prior to the public going near them despite the degree of flood water contamination. Water treatment plants or pumping stations are another major concern and must initiate Emergency Operation Protocols to ensure no cross-contamination occurs, debris does not clog their systems, pressure and chlorine levels remain steady and must attempt to maintain or restore existing public resources.
=>NON-BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION: Non-biological contamination incidences can spread from ground zero elsewhere and must be isolated (e.g. Chemical spills in water, radioactive ions or hazardous gas in the air, manufacturing waste contamination, or even food contamination due to water from a broken water pipeline) can occur. The net effect is that (the event will self eliminate eventually) because contaminants generally do not multiply. However, deposits pose environmental concerns because, (e.g. The Organic compounds as well as iron, phosphate, and manganese levels in the water affect oxygen content). Ammonium ions and other metals such as Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Silver and Zinc are toxic to river inhabitants at low levels. Anything that is displaced somewhere it is not wanted (e.g. Into a human body, environment, building, food/water supply, air, atmosphere etc.) is considered to be “contaminating” the area.
Classic Non-Biological Examples and Dangers to Humans:
1. Gases/Fumes- Toxic gasses can be dissolved in water. Also, a home may be contaminated by carbon monoxide/dioxide or methane during a flood. Chemicals used to treat water sewage may produce fumes. Additionally, do not smoke during a flood, fumes from tanks or other sources may be flammable. Driving through flood water – is a risk factor for injury or death, and may block the exhaust pipe as well.
2. Chemicals & Metals- pesticides, or materials within a storage facility may become submerged and liberate the contents into the flood water. The hydrolytic effects of water may breakdown any submerged objects or compounds into elements that are carried into ground water (that in-turn) will make its way into our drinking water supply, (Lead is a neurotoxin & nephrotoxin, and Mercury is a neurotoxin and oncogen in humans).
The CDC Chemical Hazards search database is here:
Environmental Chemical Issues are discussed here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_chemistry
3. Victims- Children, elderly, disabled, and pets are prone to flood water contamination especially (wounds)- all wounds exposed to flood water may become contaminated, and should be treated. Additionally, children must not put any objects in their mouths that are contaminated by flood water.
4. Wells and septic systems- may be breached during a flood and must be tested prior to usage. NOTE: many septic systems contain chemicals that may contaminate the home and environment, but the main concern is contagions.
5. Post-flood cleanup and demolition- Lead based paint, and asbestos are two common concerns.
=> BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION WITH TOXINS OR POISONS: (e.g. produced by fungi and plants) toxins or poisons may contaminate areas due to flooding.
Simple Examples: poison ivy urushiol and black mold spores will continue to be produced so long as there is a source of water. The flood water may not only contaminate the area with spores and provide the moisture requirement for growth, but the plant or fungi will also (multiply and spread) elsewhere. Indirectly, Poison Ivy grows best near flooded areas, and is a simple example of urban ecosystem contamination (unwanted change). Black mold grows after a flood and is an example of household contamination (a respiratory hazard).
=> BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF AN AREA BY CONTAGIONS- (bacteria, fungi, helminthes, protozoa, viruses and other parasites) Something that can infect something else through direct or indirect contact, and has a tendency to spread.
DIRECT EXAMPLES OF FLOOD WATER CONTAGIONS:
U.S. CONTAGIONS typically include: C. Cryptosporidium, E. Coli, Giardia L., C. Tetani, S. typhi, vibrio cholera, and various parasitic worms.
Prior to the advent of good antimicrobials, mass deaths resulted from floods (especially in China). The classical infections from flood contamination and exposure to these pathogens can cause illnesses ranging from mild gastritis to serious diseases such as dysentery, infectious hepatitis, and severe gastroenteritis with fever, septicemia, or other puncture wounds incurred that may require debridement and tetanus boosters or antibiotics.
CDC’S CONTAGION STANCE: “Risk characterization involves identifying potential contamination sources, determining factors that may influence microbial concentration and survival, determining the potential effect on exposed populations, and considering the intended use for previously flooded outdoor areas.” They noted 2 relevant studies:
A study (1) after Hurricane Katrina determined that microbial contaminants, specifically fecal coliforms, were elevated and considered consistent with levels detected historically in typical storm-water discharges in the area.
A study (2) conducted during the Midwest flooding of 2001 identified an increased incidence of gastrointestinal illness during the flood event.
WATERBORNE DISEASES: There are many, (representing 4.1% of the total global burden of disease and 1.8 million deaths annually) a list of pathogens is here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterborne_diseases
EXAMPLE MICROBE SURVIVABILITY WITHIN SOIL CONTAMINATED BY FLOOD WATERS:
-Shigella has survived in soil at room temperature for 9–12 days.
-Cryptosporidium oocysts may survive in a moist environment for 60–180 days.
-Spore-forming fungi such as coccidioides, and anthrax can survive in soil for many years. Mold, the typical protocol is to throw away anything that was submerged for than 24-48 hours. Mold tips are here: http://www.epa.gov/naturalevents/flooding.html
INDIRECT EXAMPLES OF CONTAGION VECTORS:
Additionally, “Displaced persons” due to flooding can result in over crowding and environmental considerations whereby transmission of disease indirectly due to the flood (results due to close quarters). Also, emergence of habitat vectors due to the flood (e.g. mosquito born illnesses may result, and animals forced from their natural habitat such as rats with tics, snakes that are poisonous, and raccoons with rabies) may pose problems.
OTHER REGION SPECIFIC FLOOD CONTAMINATION EXAMPLES:
1. COSTAL ISSUES: Seawater may deposit minerals that destroy crops or fish may wash up on shore and rot. Additionally, water erosion may occur, and topple infrastructure into the water (which then contaminates the water.
2. SEWER: In many parts of the U.S. the Storm Drains and the Sewers are still combined, and once max capacity is reached they poor out sewage onto the streets, yards, gardens, and into homes that lack a check-valve.
3. TRASH DUMPS: (should be protected by clay backfill), but in fact old dumps may not be, and could liberate some contents if susceptible (I’m thinking of Statin Island, but also know of one covered over old dump in Michigan where this may occur as well).
4. ROADWAY CHEMICALS: Hydrocarbons and oil become displaced by flooding and may damage soil.
5. INFRASTRUCTURE: Water washes out infrastructure resulting in spills, refinement facility leakage, septic tank issues occur, collapsed structures, mudslides and sinkholes.
6. REGION SPECIFIC HYDROLOGY: Urban flooding may be related to snow melting, or proximity to a flood plain, or dam collapse. Hurricanes near NY wash up trash onto the shore as well as elevated mercury levels, or the Gulf Region could kick up Oil (from prior spill).
7. FARMS AND FOOD: pesticides are displaced where they shouldn’t be into the livestock drinking water…Livestock may be contaminated and/or become sick. The following link discusses food safety (with a small section on flooding):
=>WATERSHED AND ROOT ROT: It is well known to farmers that the land must not remain saturated, and watershed areas are doomed to crop damage and root rot.
=> WATERSHED INFO CAN BE RESEARCHED HERE:
Here is an example article Mitigation story: Tennessee 2013, flood water can kill crops in 2-4 days, but in this case delayed planting of crops, see the full article at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-04-22/u-s-midwest-floods-delay-corn-sowing-after-drought-curbed-crop.html
FLOOD WATER TESTING AND MANAGEMENT:
In contemporary times, Flood Hazard Modeling is conducted using the “ Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System” which may account for some aspects of flood contamination. A “Risk-assessment Approach” is used after a flood event, whereby health authorities should assess human health risk by using a systematic approach (because many variables must be considered). This process helps authorities determine how to safely use previously flooded outdoor areas. The four steps of the risk-assessment process are:
1. Hazard identification: determines if adverse health effects may be caused by exposure to the contaminant (Can the contaminants found affect human health?).
2. Dose-response assessment: examines the magnitude of the exposure and probability of adverse health effects (Are contaminants found to the extent that can affect health?).
3. Exposure assessment: measures or estimates the extent of human exposure to the
contaminant (Who may be exposed, for how long or how frequently, and how much?).
4. Risk characterization: interprets information from the proceeding steps to form an
overall conclusion about human risk.
Specific EPA contaminant testing and management methods are not included herein, but are listed here: http://epa.gov/nrmrl/pubs/625r92013/625r92013.htm
SIMPLE SOLUTIONS LISTED BY THE CDC: include the recommended use of Signs to indicate areas soiled by flood water sludge as a simple prevention endeavor, and typically hydrated lime is utilized to kill all microbial contamination (pH 12 for 2 hours) or quicklime to dry and kill microbes (left in place up to 22 hours).
IMPORTANT TOPIC SPECIFIC REFERENCES:
CDC BIOTERRORISM AGENTS AND DISEASE LIST:
FEMA MODELS FLOOD HAZARD IMPACT ON FOOD HERE:
(contains a list of the most significant floods in the U.S. in the last 100 years)
PRIMARY FLOOD MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION RESOURCES:
STANDING FLOOD WATER CONTAMINATION RESOURCES:
Barry, John M. “The 1927 Mississippi River Flood and its Impact on U.S. Society and Flood Management Strategy.” Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University. http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_44272.htm (accessed July 19, 2014).
FEMA FLOOD CONTAMINATION WARNINGS:
THE OFFICIAL FEMA FLOOD RESOURCES WEBPAGE IS HERE:
BASIC RESOURCES AND FUTURE READING:
FLOODSMART GOV (AFTER THE FLOOD SAFETY)
FEMA FLOOD HAZARD MAPPING:
EPA SOURCEWATER PROTECTION PRACTICES:
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICES RESOURCES:
Flood Lookup: http://water.weather.gov/ahps/
Flash Flood Guidance System: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/rfcshare/ffg.php
"Flooding and its Effects on Trees", USDA Forest Service http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/n_resource/flood/table.htm
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB), “Health Risks or Dampness or Mold in Houses” http://www.iaqscience.lbl.gov/dampness-risks-house.html
Center for Neighborhood Technology, Chicago IL “The Prevalence and Cost of Urban Flooding.” http://www.cnt.org/resources/the-prevalence-and-cost-of-urban-flooding/
National Preparedness Community (MIRRORED TOPIC):
UTILIZATION OF VOLUNTEERS FOR FLOODING:
CAPABILITY VIEWPOINT-15: Utilization of CERT or other volunteers in National Severe Weather scenarios
=>SUB-CATEGORY-1 How can CERT be useful in a Floods or Water Safety scenario (linked to Preparedness resources for Floods safety and recovery) also see:
+TRAINING RESOURCE: Flood Response for CERTs
+CERT IN ACTION: New Jersey CERTs Help Area Cope with Flooding
+CERT IN ACTION: North Dakota CERTs Provide Assistance During Flood
+CERT IN ACTION: Frankfort/Franklin County, Ky. CERT Gets Muddy Assignment
+CERT IN ACTION: Naperville, IL CERT Responds to Flooding
+CERT IN ACTION: Morgan County, IN CERT Assists in Flood Response
+CERT IN ACTION: CERT Helps in Branson, MO Flash Floods
+ARC WEBSITE: http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/water-safety
=>SUB-CATEGORY-4 How can CERT be useful in Hurricanes or Tsunami scenario (linked to Preparedness resources for Hurricanes including safety tips, training guides, and recovery information) also see
+CERT IN ACTION: Astoria, Oregon CERT Activated to Prepare for Tsunami
+CERT IN ACTION: Monterey, California CERT Clears Beaches During Tsunami Threat
+CERT IN ACTION: Lee County, FL CERT Goes Above and Beyond
+CERT IN ACTION: DeBary, FL Volunteers Help Residents Weather Fay
+HURRICANE RESOURCE: http://www2.ed.gov/hurricane/index.html
THIS TOPIC IS MIRRORED AT USCSRH HERE: